Heather Conley on Russia’s “strategic conservatism” — “Intelligence Issues”

On this episode of Intelligence Issues, host Michael Morell speaks with Heather Conley, president of the German Marshall Fund of the US, about Russia’s use of “strategic conservatism” to take advantage of divisions with and inside the West. Conley explains how Russian President Vladimir Putin has leveraged the help of the management of the Russian Orthodox Church to painting himself as a world defender of conservative values. Conley and Morell additionally focus on how the Russian Orthodox Church has undermined its personal goal of ecumenism by alienating those that oppose Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. 


  • On utilizing faith to take advantage of divisions: “[W]hat they’re attempting to do is construct in separation from the Democratic West, from what we’d name the liberal West, by saying that solely Moscow is the true defender of the devoted, of the conservative. So this decadence of the West, a social agenda that embraces same-sex marriage or LGBTQ rights, that this decadence should be stopped. And Moscow is basically the one one that’s stopping this decadence and stopping it. So this may be – clearly that is taking part in on the divisions inside Western societies. And we actually know that in the US there are deep divisions about social agenda and the challenges that that presents.”  
  • On Putin’s beliefs: “[H]e’s writing these historic essays about Ukraine. These are inaccurate and incorrect, a historic understanding that he is beginning to, in some methods, drink his personal Kool-Support and actually believing this extra deeply and desirous to display that, once more, it strengthens his legitimacy. All this speak concerning the decadence of the West. What that is, is he is attempting to separate any contamination, as he sees it, of democracy, of the worth of the person over the collective.”
  • On learn how to stop malign affect: “Understanding that our societal divisions, notably after we speak about tradition wars, wokeness, issues like that, that division, you understand, international powers that do not want us effectively will use that and can exploit that weak spot. And Russia has in some methods perfected this and sees this as a serious place the place they may help amplify our personal divisions and separate themselves from democracy, from the position of the person.”  

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MICHAEL MORELL: Heather, welcome to Intelligence Issues. It’s nice to speak with you.

HEATHER CONLEY: So nice to be right here. Thanks a lot.

MICHAEL MORELL: So that you and I really talked about having this dialog a few months in the past after we had been on a panel collectively. And I am actually glad that that we’re taking the chance to take action right now.

I wish to begin, Heather, by congratulating you in your appointment as president of the German Marshall Fund in the US. I do know that is an ideal honor for you, and I do know the group is in good fingers.

HEATHER CONLEY: Properly, thanks a lot. It’s a unprecedented privilege to to guide a company that represents the dwelling reminiscence of the Marshall Plan, which is celebrating its seventy fifth anniversary and permitting this nice, daring American management initiative that rebuilt Europe after the Second World Struggle and pushed again towards communist affect. So that may be a nice heritage to have.

And boy, do we have to rebuild Ukraine and Europe. So our work is required now greater than ever. However thanks a lot.

MICHAEL MORELL: You are welcome. You are welcome. So, Heather, in your earlier put up on the Heart for Strategic and Worldwide Research, you led a group that produced a collection of papers referred to as The Kremlin Playbook. I wish to ask you, what is the collection about and why did you undertake the undertaking?

HEATHER CONLEY: Properly, thanks. An incredible query. So the 12 months, I believe was 2009, and it was the very early days of the Obama administration and a bunch of Central European leaders wrote a letter. It was an open letter, which was type of a wierd type of communication on the time. These had been nice associates of the US. They wrote a letter to President Obama, warning that Russian financial warfare – and people had been their phrases – was having the impact of mainly difficult or altering these nations’ transatlantic orientation.
These had been nations that had been members of NATO in addition to the European Union. And for me, it was the analysis query: Might that be true? Might financial affect, Russia’s financial affect, change the very nature of the regime and its preferences and its democracy?

So we went about quantifying the quantity of Russian financial affect in a choose group of European nations. And that first report, it got here out that, sure, if a rustic has over 12% of its gross home product is of Russian origin – and that is typically arduous to calculate as a result of it is designed to be very stealthy and shell corporations and issues like that – we had been beginning to see proof of their democratic establishments had been starting to be challenged. Corruption efforts had been being shut down, judicial reform was being shut down. And also you started to see the place this, we referred to as it a virtuous cycle of affect, of financial affect, which grew political affect, which continued to develop Russia’s financial presence.

The report landed about two weeks earlier than the 2016 presidential election, and it actually, I believe, defined intimately how financial affect can start to subvert democratic establishments and challenged the orientation of a rustic’s insurance policies and preferences. In order that first one, for sure, made an enormous splash and I believe helped folks perceive a really difficult idea of how financial affect actually purchases or corrupts democracy.

We then went on to proceed to review these techniques. Our second report was ‘The Enablers.’ So how do nations that need that Russian financial affect – there are forces that that truly gorged themselves on it. So company service suppliers, tax earnings, they’re all rising and utilizing Russian affect and it was beginning to pervert their very own techniques.

After which our very last one, referred to as, ‘Maintaining the Religion,’ appears to be like at really the economics of what we name orthodox entrepreneurs. These are all like Russian oligarchs which have been investing within the using the church, in some methods weaponizing the church and Western values. And so that is the third one. It is referred to as, ‘Maintaining the Religion,’ and the way faith and values at the moment are being perverted by it, by Russian affect.

MICHAEL MORELL: So that is the one, the third one, Heather, that I actually wish to dive into. However earlier than we try this, I do know you weren’t the one creator of those papers, and I wished to present you an opportunity to say one thing about your co-authors.

MICHAEL MORELL: Sure, completely. And I wish to give an ideal shout out to great authors. My co-author, Donatienne Ruy, who’s on the Heart for Strategic and Worldwide Research. However we had a global group of authors. Marlene Laruelle, who’s at George Washington College. Majda Ruge, who’s on the European Council on International Relations. Elizabeth Prodromou, who’s with Tufts College’s after which Tengiz Pkhaladze who’s in Tbilisi, Georgia, with the Georgian Institute for Public Affairs.

So we had an exquisite collection of specialists that helped us dive into Russia’s use of what we name strategic conservatism in our examine nations, which was France, Bosnia, Georgia and Greece.

MICHAEL MORELL: Okay. So, ‘Maintaining the Religion’ facilities round that notion, proper, of Moscow’s strategic conservativism. Are you able to clarify what that time period means to our listeners? What it’s and the way to consider it.

HEATHER CONLEY: Yeah, completely. And we actually should concentrate on phrases and we wish to be very cautious as a result of what we wished to do on this report is to guard folks’s beliefs, their values, their religion, and to make them conscious that it may be inclined to to disinformation, to malign affect.

So we describe the time period, ‘strategic conservatism,’ which is mainly utilizing one’s beliefs, values and traditions and utilizing them for international coverage and security-related functions. So what Russia does – and Russia really makes use of strategic conservatism internally to Russia, by imposing a algorithm and norms that solely the state type of has the authority and the data of of the ethical values of of Russia.

That is, after all, the Russian Orthodox Church is a pillar of that, nevertheless it’s additionally a collection of societal norms – once more, the state, the hierarchy, the collective over the person. However we had been observing how Russia makes use of quite a lot of instruments: as I discussed, the Russian Orthodox Church. There are different charitable organizations they use. And what they’re attempting to do is construct in separation from the Democratic West, from what we’d name the liberal West, by saying that solely Moscow is the true defender of the devoted, of the conservative.

So this decadence of the West, a social agenda that embraces same-sex marriage or LGBTQ rights, that this decadence should be stopped. And Moscow is basically the one one that’s stopping this decadence and stopping it. So this may be – clearly that is taking part in on the divisions inside Western societies. And we actually know that in the US there are deep divisions about social agenda and the challenges that that presents.

And that is the place Moscow inserts itself on the aspect of the defender of the devoted and the standard. However what they’re attempting to do is divide the West and display that, you understand, you do not wish to be a part of the West, notably for nations which might be aspiring to hitch NATO or be part of the European Union. It is a actually highly effective instrument to separate these nations and divide their authorities. So it’s totally highly effective.

It really works in a different way relying on, you understand, the instruments at their disposal. The Russian Orthodox Church is a big amplifier of this, as are loads of disinformation channels that basically strategy individuals who share issues. And it actually helps them, you understand, amplify their malign message.

MICHAEL MORELL: I wish to maintain maintain digging deeper right here, and I wish to ask some questions concerning the Russian Orthodox Church. However earlier than I try this, are you able to speak about what the idea of the ‘third Rome’ is and the way it’s related to this idea of strategic conservatism?

HEATHER CONLEY: Completely. And it’s a actually essential idea. So it’s each a theological idea. It is also a political idea.

So the concept of the third – that Moscow is the third Rome. So after the autumn of Rome after which the autumn of Constantinople, what some who help this view that Moscow is now the professional, the true genuine empire that hasn’t fallen due to their their very own corruption, that this ‘third Rome’ means that it’s the heart of conservatism, that once more, Moscow, because the genuine empire, is now the true defender of the devoted.

And it additionally speaks to this type of sense that the chief of Russia, the czar, if you’ll, or Vladimir Putin, is the non secular chief of this world orthodox and conservative motion. So it is obtained so much in there, however it’s a very highly effective, each non secular and political thought that places Moscow on the heart of the Slavic and Orthodox world, and they’re the one true heir of that empire and the defender of the devoted.

MICHAEL MORELL: So after I learn the report, one of many issues that struck me was the Kremlin and the Russian Orthodox Church being type of the central actors on this story. And I might prefer to ask you, how would you describe the connection between the 2 and what do each side get out of that relationship?

HEATHER CONLEY: Sure. I imply, going again to the the Russian Orthodox Church – and in the course of the Tsarist instances via the Soviet Union and now right now, it has at all times been a really sophisticated, a really contradictory relationship. So, after all, throughout Tsarist instances, the Russian Orthodox Church, like Putin is doing now, it is embraced as a part of traditionalism, id and that hierarchy and that state management; once more, the tsar because the non secular chief, along with the political chief.

After all, throughout Soviet instances – notably Stalin, you understand, wiped away the Russian Orthodox Church. Church buildings had been was warehouses. It was to abolish that spirituality and that non secular proper. Communism was the brand new faith. Now, the place you’ve gotten now, since 2009, a patriarch, Patriarch Kirill, who initially had distanced himself slightly bit from from Vladimir Putin, has now totally embraced Putinism as a option to strengthen the Russian Orthodox Church.

So it is a mutually helpful relationship.

So Patriarch Kirill totally helps Mr. Putin. He sees Mr. Putin as a miracle of God. He is totally supportive of the Ukrainian struggle. The truth is, Pope Francis just lately referred to as Patriarch Kirill, ‘Putin’s altar boy’ and warned him to not be that near these political leaders.

Nevertheless it’s been – and truly it has been harmful and hasn’t labored, as a result of the nearer the Russian Orthodox Church has come to Putinism, it is created schisms inside the church in order that the thing was to unify a world orthodoxy. However what’s occurred is the Russian Orthodox church has divided the Orthodox world. And the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, or the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, has really formally separated from the Moscow patriarch. So, however they’re attempting to unite beneath one Slavic, you understand, one chief. Truly, they’ve deeply divided the Orthodox world.

MICHAEL MORELL: So how deep is this idea of the third Rome? How deep is that believed inside the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia?

HEATHER CONLEY: So I believe it has grown over time, actually. This – I might say this complete third Rome narrative effectively over a decade in the past was solely heard in essentially the most, type of, extremely nationalist, you understand, voices.

However after Vladimir Putin returned to the Kremlin in 2012, he was affected by a legitimacy downside. He encountered the most important demonstrations of his tenure. And so in some methods started to embrace precisely this spirituality, this traditionalism. And in 2012, a civil activist group, a feminine rock band, Pussy Riot, had a serious demonstration within the main Orthodox Cathedral in Moscow. And in some methods, this type of crystallized opposition to Putin’s management and and the violation of Russian traditions and religion and id. And so it actually started to develop.

And I see it, you understand, accelerating now with the struggle in Ukraine, the place this non secular – the ‘spiritualness’ that Russia can’t be spiritually complete with out Ukraine, that Putin is that this non secular chief, this miracle of God. And so all of these threads have actually come collectively and crystallized. So now this third Rome narrative has type of legitimacy and justification for lots of Russia’s struggle goals.

MICHAEL MORELL: One of many issues I am questioning about is does Putin really imagine on this idea or does he not? And he merely understands that it is a highly effective political and international coverage instrument for him. What’s your sense

HEATHER CONLEY: So I might say, 5 to six years in the past, he noticed it as an essential instrument to strengthen his legitimacy. I might argue – I do not know whether or not that is the pandemic and his isolation or well being or, I do not know. However I might say the final two years, what was a instrument grew to become rather more deeply ingrained.

You already know, he is writing these historic essays about Ukraine. These are inaccurate and incorrect, a historic understanding that he is beginning to, in some methods, drink his personal Kool-Support and actually believing this extra deeply and desirous to display that, once more, it strengthens his legitimacy. All this speak concerning the decadence of the West. What that is, is he is attempting to separate any contamination, as he sees it, of democracy, of the worth of the person over the collective. And that is what they’re attempting to separate themselves from, and even turning the script and saying, ‘You already know what? What the US did on the finish of the Chilly Struggle, the collapse of the Soviet Union, it was ending communism.’

Properly, some round Putin imagine that Russia is now the West’s savior, that we’ve got to, you understand, transfer this smoke from our eyes, because it had been, of this decadence, of this social decadent agenda that’s ruining us. So in addition they see it as not solely defending themselves from Western democracy and concepts, which they’re attempting to suppress on their very own inside Russia. However they’re additionally attempting to make use of it to divide Western societies and propel themselves as this nice savior, this nice defender of the devoted and the conservative.

MICHAEL MORELL: So it is a little off subject, however you’ve got been watching Russia for a very long time. And I am simply questioning should you sense that Putin is one way or the other one way or the other sick, one way or the other sick, otherwise you simply cannot inform?

HEATHER CONLEY: You already know, the rumors have simply been extraordinary the final a number of months. And these rumors have circulated – you understand, after the assassination of former deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov, Putin disappeared for 11 days. There was hypothesis about his well being. There was hypothesis that he has a foul again, that, you understand, all kinds of issues. They actually have accelerated.

I might argue that the pandemic, whereas it was powerful on all people and definitely accentuated psychological well being challenges, there was one thing, I believe throughout this, the pandemic – that is complete hypothesis on my half. He was very remoted in his palace in Sochi. So very away from folks. I believe it was time to stew.

It was time to – you understand, he was getting loads of stress. Navalny, Alexei Navalny was, you understand, difficult him, his legitimacy, the change within the Russian structure, his personal sense of, you understand, his management. It started to crystallize in all of these items. Once more, he simply used as instruments; they had been they had been devices. To additional it, he started to internalize them, imagine them, write incorrect essays, and as a substitute actually internalize this.

And I might argue that is the place, you understand, his isolation and possibly questionable well being points is propelling this urgency to revive Russia’s greatness and its spirituality that he sees. He’s the distinctive chief; solely he can write the historic incorrect of the Soviet Union’s collapse. However, boy, you want higher medical doctors and psychologists. That is what he is about. However that is my guess.

MICHAEL MORELL: I believe lots of people try to determine it out, not with loads of success in the mean time.
So Heather, after we began the dialog, you talked about this idea of Orthodox entrepreneurs, and I discovered that basically fascinating in your report. Who’re these people and what did they do?

HEATHER CONLEY: Sure. And in reality, it’s because we studied Russian financial affect. That is how, in some methods, how we stumbled throughout this, using strategic conservatism.

So what we started to see is a choose group of Russian oligarchs. In all probability essentially the most famous one is a gentleman often called Malofeyev. He has been a really huge believer within the non secular return or restoration of Russia. He has, you understand, nice investments. And once more, he is his personal oligarch in his personal proper.

However he invests in humanitarian organizations. He runs St. Basil’s, the nice charitable group that promotes non secular understanding and research. He has spent cash to deliver relics from the Holy Land to Moscow once more. And it creates that aura of the third Rome, that legitimacy, if you’ll, of Russia because the defender of the devoted.

However what we started to see is loads of Russian Orthodox cathedral building. So in France, in different places, cultural facilities, surrounding this, you understand, the cultural and the orthodox world, use of organizations like Russkiy Mir, Russia World, to assist help that examine.

And what we started to note – this was notably outstanding in France – that one other oligarch, the previous Railroad Ministry, Yakunin, was additionally funding – going into type of former circles, monarchist circles and of French Russian emigres that got here out of the Russian civil struggle, that they had been, you understand, taking part in on these themes of the tsar and Russian Orthodox and spirituality.

And so it was a cultural concern. It was constructing these massive cathedrals, funding charitable organizations. And it was once more, it was continued to encompass nations and societies with these messages of the third Rome, that Russia is the defender and the savior. You can additionally see monetary help for referendums in a number of nations on same-sex marriage referendums. These referendums had been designed to divide the societies on the time, put separation between nations that wished to hitch the European Union or keep inside Russia’s orbit.

So all of it labored collectively. A few of it was very smooth. Others of it was was fairly away from what they had been attempting to do to divide. However they had been – these orthodox entrepreneurs had been actually targeted on strengthening this strategic conservatism. So it was type of non-public sector help of the bigger initiatives of the Kremlin in addition to the Russian Orthodox Church.

MICHAEL MORELL: Do you assume, Heather, that this strategic conservatism to some extent explains, for need of a greater phrase, the love between the Trump White Home and Putin? I do know there have been a few true believers on this idea contained in the White Home, and I am simply questioning what your ideas are on that.

HEATHER CONLEY: So I believe we actually do see loads of affinity teams in the US that actually imagine within the agenda of the Kremlin, this strategic conservatism agenda in its to battle towards this notion of decadence.

So, type of simply taking the Kremlin and the malign work out of it, there’s a shared view about, you understand, dramatic social change and what which means to at least one’s religion and values. And that may be a sophisticated and tough subject, I believe, the place we’re beginning to see the synergies – and that is notably true with some teams in the US who actually help the Hungarian prime minister, Viktor Orban, who’s additionally perfected, in some methods, this use of strategic conservatism.

It is an anti-West type of – it is a tradition struggle. It is placing these cultural points on the forefront and weaponizing them. And so in utilizing that for political legitimacy, so you might be positively seeing there’s big uptake. A few of this does start to originate in the US. There’s type of a suggestions loop. There’s a actual concentrate on this safety of the standard household, safety of conventional values, for positive.

However I believe many are unwitting and do not perceive that there’s a international coverage implication of this, that Russia is utilizing this so we battle each other extra intensely, that it causes division and weak spot within the West, that that is simply one other instrument of their toolkit, which is – that is why we wrote the report. So folks perceive what’s at stake. Look, everybody, we’re respectful of various views, however they cannot be weaponized. And Russia is weaponizing this to divide our societies.

MICHAEL MORELL: I wish to transfer on to ask some questions on Ukraine, particularly, Heather, however only one extra query on this broader subject. And also you talked about earlier that the Pope had type of scolded the chief of the Russian Orthodox Church on his help for the Russian invasion of Ukraine. However what position, if any, did the Roman Catholic Church play within the progress of strategic conservatism, positively or negatively?

HEATHER CONLEY: Oh, gosh, that is query, as a result of, once more, the evolution of this, once more, was – and I believe Pope Francis was actually a frontrunner on this – was attempting to deliver the ecumenical group collectively and never have these deep divisions and these separations.

And sadly, Pope Francis – in his personal views, on extra liberal views on same-sex marriage, for example, you understand, ‘Who’re we to evaluate’ -that, I believe, opened an actual division between what the Russian Orthodox Church was doing, and I believe they thought they’d a greater ally, probably, within the Catholic Church or the management of the Catholic Church.

Nevertheless it’s actually, once more, these questions of religion and values, if not correctly addressed with congregants, issues might be extraordinarily divisive. However I believe most apparently, I imply, the Catholic Church hasn’t performed an enormous position – in actual fact, in our dialogue of strategic conservatism in France, we really noticed the place extra French Catholics had been starting to begin to migrate to the Russian Orthodox Church with that orthodoxy, as a result of it was extra conservative. So we’re really seeing the place, some within the Catholic Church had been, in France, leaving for orthodoxy.

However I believe the actual loss right here was the Russian Orthodox Church was attempting to unite your complete Orthodox world beneath their management. And the start of the struggle in 2014 with the annexation of Crimea and the primary invasion in Donbas, that truly created the circumstances the place the ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople agreed to the separation of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. And so the church is break up. And so this strategic initiative for the Russian Orthodox Church to be the unifier and the chief, they’ve simply executed their very own aim of mainly dividing the orthodox world. And now we’ve got much more church buildings inside Ukraine leaving the Moscow patriarchy due to their continued help for the struggle.

MICHAEL MORELL: So I wish to speak slightly bit about Ukraine, Heather, and I do know you’ve got talked about this a number of instances in our dialog, however possibly we will come at it instantly right here. How does this dynamic of strategic conservativism tie into the battle in Ukraine?

HEATHER CONLEY: Yeah, and that is the place – I name it ‘the nice contradiction,’ as a result of on the one hand, Vladimir Putin has argued that the Ukrainian and Russian individuals are one folks. I imply, that’s partially to remove any distinction that Ukraine is a definite nation, distinct folks. And that, you understand, once more, the Ukraine for Russia is its non secular residence as a result of the origins of Russia started in Ukraine and Kievan Rus’. So there is a spirituality to this.

And I believe there’s parallels to the founding of Russia popping out of Ukraine. So it’s the contradiction that Russia’s struggle of aggression towards Ukraine are killing the one folks, killing ethnic Russians that reside in Ukraine. They’re bombing Russian Orthodox church buildings due to indiscriminant bombing. So this complete sense of reunification that restores Russia’s greatness, that Ukraine is on the heart of its non secular and historic coronary heart, it’s destroying itself, actually. That is the contradiction.

And the place you see – as a result of Putin has to rally Russian society, they do not help struggle usually, which is why they’re calling it a ‘particular army operation,’ they cannot even say ‘struggle.’ They’ve so repressed society, as a result of struggle is unpopular, and should you advance, then, the data that you simply’re attempting to avoid wasting your non secular, your Slavic brothers, you are killing them and in addition to killing Russians on the identical time.

So that is the place the contradiction comes of this, once more, this third Rome, you understand, the Kremlin is the defender of the devoted. No, they’re killing the devoted, and their very own non secular coronary heart. In order that’s simply what makes this extraordinary.

However the Russian Orthodox Church is clearly being mobilized in vilifying the Ukrainian folks as as Nazis. However even over time, Mr. Putin’s quote from the opposite day, they maintain altering their justification of their struggle; it was de-Nazification. Now it is returning Russia’s historic lands, which they view, I imply, they return to Peter the Nice in these historic lands, which issues all of us, as a result of these historic lands stretch to Sweden, Finland, the Baltic states. So you understand that is a really expansive definition.

MICHAEL MORELL: So it appears to me – appropriate me if I am incorrect, nevertheless it appears to me that this new justification that Putin has shifted to, away from de-Nazification, you understand, in direction of recovering strategic lands, is definitely promoting higher in Russia. Is that proper, or arduous to inform?

HEATHER CONLEY: So, you understand, it is arduous to inform, however I believe for me, it is telling that he is persevering with to search out the justification, possibly the denazification, though once more, utilizing the symbolism, the St. George’s ribbon and issues like that, it is actually been effectively -introduced.

However I believe this returns again to his theme of final July of this historic essay. He, once more, he sees himself as the nice restorer of Russia’s greatness, historic – and he is now, you understand, I believe we thought possibly that is about restoring the Soviet Union when he advised us. No, this really goes again to a lot, a lot better, a thousand years of Russian historical past that he is really about restoring that probably, which is a unprecedented ambition when 70% of Russia’s standard forces proper now are having a tough time securing Luhansk Oblast.

Nevertheless it speaks to his broader imaginative and prescient and speaks to, once more, the grievance, the historical past, the spirituality of Russia itself. So the ambition is sweeping.

MICHAEL MORELL: So the important thing achieve right here for Putin is using strategic conservativism right here helps him legitimize what he is doing.

HEATHER CONLEY: It does, as I stated. And I believe that was- he is used this instrument earlier than. I believe he is internalizing it. I believe that is what issues me essentially the most, is that whenever you begin shopping for your individual strains and also you imagine you might be uniquely positioned, that, you understand, does he see himself because the non secular heir of Peter the Nice, of restoring the lands?

And that is the place the Russian Orthodox Church, which was proper beside the tsars, as they had been the political and the non secular chief, is he attempting to fuse these? So this has obtained legitimacy about Ukraine goals. It is about maintaining the West divided. However is he now beginning to actually imagine Patriarch Kirill, that he’s a miracle of God and that he has this broader non secular world? That is the place you get, I believe, slightly scary into his personal understanding of himself and his ambitions and what he’s set to do.

MICHAEL MORELL: You talked about earlier a little bit of a backlash, Heather, within the Orthodox Church extra broadly, to the invasion of Ukraine. And I am questioning if there’s been been any backlash contained in the Russian Orthodox Church itself or not?

HEATHER CONLEY: Yeah, it positive has. Not all Orthodox monks subscribe to Patriarch Kirill, the chief of the Russian Orthodox Church, his full throttled help for Putin for the struggle. I imply, I believe that is, once more, it speaks to monks which might be, you understand, tending their very own congregants. They’re there and dealing with Russian residents which have misplaced family members within the struggle with out understanding the place they’re, that perceive the financial toll that Russia’s struggle is taking and saying, once more, type of as Pope Francis stated, ‘Look, you understand, we’ve got a distinct position right here. Our position just isn’t essentially to help the state in harming our congregants. We, you understand, have a distinct position right here.’

So monks have been jailed. They have been shuffled round. There’s been some management adjustments inside the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church for much more higher-level voices which have been questioning how the Russian Orthodox Church has embraced Putinism.

However once more, it’s clear that there’s a sturdy management by Patriarch Kirill, and he is actually banking that the Russian Orthodox Church shall be profitable as a result of Putin shall be profitable. However the reverse might be true. If Vladimir Putin just isn’t profitable sooner or later, that may actually problem the Russian Orthodox Church as effectively.

MICHAEL MORELL: So we’ve got a couple of minute or so left right here, Heather, and I wish to ask you, how do you assume the West ought to reply to this strategic conservatism as a political instrument? We do not wish to criticize folks’s non secular beliefs. However how ought to the West cope with this? I do know it is a actually powerful query.

HEATHER CONLEY: The first step, consciousness. Understanding that our societal divisions, notably after we speak about tradition wars, wokeness, issues like that, that division, you understand, international powers that do not want us effectively will use that and can exploit that weak spot. And Russia has in some methods perfected this and sees this as a serious place the place they may help amplify our personal divisions and separate themselves from democracy, from the position of the person.

Look, freedom of faith and the worth of the person to freely categorical their faith or not have faith in any respect – what the Russians are doing is popping that on its head and making this concerning the collective curiosity, not the person, and actually in some ways, perverting freedom of faith.

So that is one thing, once more, these are these are freedoms that we’ve got to guard, the sanctity of them and remember that they’re being twisted. So heal our societal divisions. Do not use these as these tradition wars, that are, once more, aiding and abetting actors who don’t want the US or our allies effectively. And that is actually the place we’ve got to start out. That is how we we maintain the religion that we will have these views and never enable them to be perverted.

MICHAEL MORELL: Heather, thanks a lot on your time right now. Thanks for sharing such an fascinating paper with us. If my listeners really wish to go learn the papers – and I recommend you do – simply search ‘Kremlin Playbook, CSIS,’ they usually’ll pop proper up there for you.

Heather, thanks a lot.

MICHAEL MORELL: Thanks. It is nice to be with you. 

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